Q1.Analyze the growth of Buddhist Architecture in India?
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Buddhist Architecture is the earliest religious architecture of India. The birth of Buddhism in India had led to the emergence of worship buildings for devotees of Buddhism. It started during the reign of Ashoka in India in 3 AD. Ashoka founded architectural features and certain famous elements that reflected Buddhist architecture found on monuments and temples.
Buddhist Architecture includes Stupas, Chaityas and Viharas as types of structures. Stupas contain the relics of Buddha, Chaityas are the Prayer halls and Viharas are the houses of monks.
Noted centers of Buddhist Architecture are Sanchi, Kushinagar, Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda, Kanaganahalli(Gulbarga), Ajanta, Ellora, Nasik, Bedara, Kondane, Kanheri and Karla.
After Ashoka, Buddhist Architecture reached zenith during the reign of Kushanas and Shatavahanas. During Kushanas the Gandhara and Mathura school of Architecture were introduced. Gandhara Buddha sculptures were spiritual and exceled calmness. Mathura Buddha sculptures were less spiritual. It depicted a masculine smiling Buddha often seated in Padmasana. Gandhara images depicted longer eyes, shorter ear lobes and sharper noses.
Amaravati school of Architecture grew in South under Shatavahanas. It was influenced by Mathura school of Architecture.
The Buddhist architecture flourished alongside the Hindu temple Architecture in the ancient and Medieval periods. These architectural monuments hold a unique place in the temple architecture development in India